Among the 512 million persons living in the EU in 2018, 7.8 % had a nationality other than their country of residence: 3.4 % had a citizenship of another EU Member State and 4.4 % of a non-EU Member State.
The largest shares of citizens of another EU Member State aged 15 to 64 were observed in Czechia (86 %), Estonia and Romania (both 85 %), while for non-EU citizens, it was in Poland and Romania (both 88 %) and Ireland (87 %).
Both for immigration and emigration, figures include people who have emigrated both on a permanent basis as well as for a period of one year or more. At a Member State level, a large majority of those emigrating were nationals, with the highest shares in Slovakia (99 %), Portugal (98 %) and Croatia (96 %). Largest shares of citizens from another EU Member State emigrating were observed in Luxembourg (67 %) and Austria (47 %), while for non-EU citizens, the highest proportions were found in Czechia (65 %) and Cyprus (60 %).
Source: Eurostat, 2017
The number of first residence permits granted in the EU to non-EU citizens increased from 2008 to 2017. This mainly resulted from a continuous growth during the last three years, from 2.3 million in 2014 up to 3.1 million in 2017, while the number of first residence permits granted over the 2008-2014 period fluctuated between 2.1 and 2.5 million. The reason for applying for first residence permits in the EU varied: 32 % of people asking for residence permit did it for work reasons, 27 % for family reasons and 17 % for education. The remaining 24 % were for other reasons, including international protection.
Mobile tertiary students coming from abroad and graduating in another country than one's home country represented 8.1 % of all enrolled tertiary students in the EU in 2017. In Czechia, the share of mobile tertiary students reached 12.7% in 2017.
26th July 2019
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